If this is a topic that you find especially interesting you really have to read the Godhead Trilogy by James Morrow.
In Towing Jehova, the Judeo-Christian god has died and fallen into the Atlantic. The protagonist is a disgraced oil tanker captain the Vatican contracts to go out and tow the Dei's corpse north to a tomb carved out of the ice. The second volume, Blameless in Abbadon is a really interesting exercise in theodicy, putting God's corpse on trial for crimes against humanity. The final volume, The Eternal Footman, is an examination of what the world may look like in the transition phase from being wholly reliant on a spiritual explanation of the world to a human-directed independence (Think Durkheim's final phase of religious evolution). I really like all his stuff, but this particular trilogy is right on point for you.
Check out: http://www.sff.net/people/jim.morrow/index2.html