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(1828-1905). French writer.

Short films based on his work: Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (George MÉLIÈS 1902); Drama in the Air (Gaston Velle 1904); An Impossible Voyage (Le Voyage à Travers l'Impossible) (Méliès 1904); Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea  (Wallace McCutcheon 1905); Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea (20000 Lieues sous les Mers) (Méliès 1907); Inside the Earth (Voyage au Centre de la Terre) (Segundo de CHOMÓN 1910); The Conquest of the Pole (À la Conquête du Pole) (Méliès 1912); Cinci Saptamîni în Balon (animated) (Olimp Varasteanu 1967).

Films based on his work: 'Round the World in 80 Days (1914); Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea (Stuart Paton 1916); The Mysterious Island (Lucien Hubbard, Benjamin Christensen, uncredited, and Maurice Tourneur, uncredited 1929); Mysterious Island (Tainstvennyy Ostrov) (Eduard Pentslin 1941); Mysterious Island (serial) (Spencer Gordon BENNET 1951); 20,000 Leagues under the Sea (Richard FLEISCHER 1954) (also reedited as episodes of Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color); Around the World in Eighty Days (Michael ANDERSON 1956); The Fabulous World of Jules Verne (Vynález Zkázy) (Karel ZEMAN 1958); From the Earth to the Moon (Byron HASKIN 1958); 800 Leagues over the Amazon (800 Leguas por el Amazonas) (Emilio Gómez Muriel 1959); Journey to the Center of the Earth (Henry LEVIN 1959); Master of the World (William Witney 1961); Mysterious Island (Cy Endfield 1961); Valley of the Dragons (Edward BERNDS 1961); Five Weeks in a Balloon (Irwin ALLEN 1962); The Three Stooges Go Around the World in a Daze (Norman Maurer 1963); Ukradená Vzducholod (Zeman 1967); Jules Verne's Rocket to the Moon (Those Fantastic Flying Fools) (Don Sharp 1967); Captain Nemo and the Underwater City (James Hill 1969); Strange Holiday (Mende Brown 1970); Hector Salvadac's Ark (Na Komete) (Zeman 1970); The Mysterious Island of Captain Nemo (La Isla Misteriosa) (Juan Antonio Bardem and Henri Colpi 1973) (also reedited as tv miniseries); Kapitan Nemo (Vasili Levin and Edgar Smirnov 1975).

Viaje Fantástico en Globo (René Cardona, Jr. 1975); Wielka Podróz Bolka i Lolka (Stanislaw Dulz and Wladyslaw Nehrebecki 1977); Where Time Began (Viaje al Centro de la Tierra) (Juan Piquer Simón 1978);  

Tajemství Ocelového Mesta (Ludvik Razá 1979); Castle in the Carpathians (Stere Gulea 1981); Mystery on Monster Island (Misterio en la Isla de los Monstruos)(Simón 1981); Les Jeux de la Comtesse Dolingen de Gratz (Catherine Binet 1981); Mysterious Planet (Brett Piper 1982); The Mysterious Castle in the Carpathians (Oldrich Lipský 1983); 20,000 Leagues under the Sea (animated) (1985); Around the World in Eighty Days (animated) (1988); Tajomstvo Alchymistu Storitza (Pawel Trzaska 1991); Eight Hundred Leagues down the Amazon (Luis Llosa 1993); Verne World (video game) (1995); Around the World in Eighty Days (animated) (1999); The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (Stephen Norrington 2003); Around the World in Eighty Days (Frank Coraci 2004); 80 Days: Around the World Adventure (video game) (2005); 30,000 Leagues under the Sea (Gabriel Bologna 2007); Journey to the Center of the Earth (Davey Jones and Scott Wheeler 2008); Journey to the Center of the Earth (Eric Brevig 2008).

Television movies based on his work: Die Reise um die Erde in 80 Tagen  (Hans-Joachim Hildebrandt and Horst Schönemann 1963); Die Reise um die Erde  (Hans-Dieter Schwarze 1964); Ukradená Vzducholod (Zeman 1967); L'Orgue Fantastique (Jacques Trébouta and Robert Valey 1968); De la Terre a la Luna  (José Solé 1969); Nemo (Jean Bacqué 1970); 20,000 Leagues under the Sea (animated) (Jules Bass and Arthur Rankin, Jr. 1973); Maître Zaccharius (Pierre Bureau 1973); Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea (animated) (Joseph BARBERA and William HANNA 1973); Utazás a Holdba (Miklós Csányi 1974); The Mysterious Island (animated) (Leif Gram 1975); Master of the World (animated) (Gram 1976); A Journey to the Center of the Earth (animated) (Richard Slapczynski 1977); 5 Weeks in a Balloon (animated) (1977); The Return of Captain Nemo (Alex March and Paul Stader 1978); From the Earth to the Moon (animated) (Slapczynski 1979); Off on a Comet (animated) (Slapczynski 1979); Le Tour du Monde en 80 Jours (André Flédérick 1979); Le Voyage dans la Lune (Jean Bovon 1986); Journey to the Center of the Earth (William Dear 1993); Journey to the Center of the Earth (animated) (Laura Shepherd 1996); 20,000 Leagues under the Sea (Anderson 1997); 20,000 Leagues under the Sea (Don Hardy 1997); Journey to the Center of the Earth (George Miller 1999); Les Voyages Extraordinaires de Jules Verne—Le Tour du Monde en 80 Jours (animated) (Henri Heidsieck 2000); Journey to the Center of the Earth (Les Voyages Extraordinaires de Jules Verne—Voyage au Centre de la Terre) (animated) (Zoltán Szilágyi Varga 2001); 800 Leagues down the Amazon (Les Voyages Extraordinaires de Jules Verne—La Janganda) (animated) (Jean-Pierre Jacquet 2001); The Greatest Show on Ice (Les Voyages Extraordinaires de Jules Verne—César Cascabel) (animated) (2001); Mysterious Island (Les Voyages Extraordinaires de Jules Verne—L'Ǐle Mystérieuse) (animated) (Claude Allix 2001); The Southern Star (Les Voyages Extraordinaires de Jules Verne—L'étoile du Sud) (animated) (Armando Fereira 2001); Le Docteur Ox (Philippe Béziat 2004); 20,000 Leagues under the Sea (animated) (Scott Heming 2004); Mysterious Island (Russell Mulcahy 2005).

Television episodes and series based on his work: "Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea: The Chase: Part 1," "Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea: The Escape: Part 2" (1952), episodes of Tales of Tomorrow; "Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea" (six-part episode) (1952), episode of Tales of Adventure; "Fogg Bound" (1960), episode of Have Gun—Will Travel; "The Terrible Clockman" (1961), episode of Shirley Temple Theatre; "L'Ǐle Mystérieuse" (1963), episode of Le Théâtre de la Jeunesse; Journey to the Center of the Earth (animated series) (1967-1969); "The Brady Kids on Mysterious Island" (1973), episode of The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie; Around the World in Eighty Days (animated series) (1972-1973); Around the World with Willy Fog (animated series) (1981-1982); Around the World in Eighty Days (miniseries) (1989); Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water (animated) (1990-1991); Willy Fog 2 (animated series) (1993-1994); Mysterious Island (series) (1995); The Secret Adventures of Jules Verne (series) (2000).

The careers of Jules Verne and of cinema overlapped for almost a decade, so that one can envision an alternate history in which the aging author, always attuned to new technological developments, enthusiastically plunged into writing scenarios for the new medium. As a matter of actual history, however, the increasingly reclusive Verne stuck to writing novels, and while he would still indulge his love for the theatre, I know of no evidence that he ever saw a film—including the first adaptation of his work, Georges MÉLIÈS's La Voyage dans le Lune. Thus, he became one of the few people who merits attention in this volume solely because of his inadvertent contributions to science fiction and fantasy film.

From one perspective, it is not difficult to discern why the works of Verne have proven so popular with filmmakers. Like Edgar Allan POE, he offers a name that brings a certain amount of prestige to any project, and as is the case with Poe, his major works have long been in the public domain, so that there are no costs involved in appropriating his stories. But Verne's novels have been filmed far more often than Poe's stories because the French author, unlike Poe, consistently produced what seem in retrospect to be ideal stories for films—robust adventure stories, usually with well-drawn heroes and villains, set in exotic realms like distant countries, the North and South Poles, the depths of the oceans, vast underground caverns, and outer space. And the fact that almost all Verne films are little more than adventure stories is not the fault of Verne, who regularly included social commentary and satire along with his thrills. However, these materials were suppressed by early translators, who bowdlerized his novels to serve as suitable books for children, and this has remained the perception of filmmakers who have not bothered to consult the more recent, and more accurate, translations of his most notable works. Thus, only fleetingly do occasional films like the 1958 version of From the Earth to the Moon and Jules Verne's Rocket to the Moon (both loose adaptations of the same novel) address the sorts of political and cultural issues that were near and dear to his heart.

Verne also cannot be credited, or blamed, for one type of film inspired by his work—the colorful, playful fantasies—that except for superficial borrowings bear little relationship to the tone and contents of the stories he wrote, those these can be appreciated on their own terms. These include the classic short films of Méliès and his imitator, Segundo de CHOMÓN, as well as two later films by noted Czech filmmaker Karel ZEMAN, The Fabulous World of Jules Verne and Hector Servadac's Ark, which are highly praised in some quarters. (But not here—I tend to find his films hard to sit through, and I generally regard Zeman as a classic example of a man with a talent for making films that people wish to admire, but do not genuinely admire. But that is an argument for another entry.) There is also no reason to associate Verne's name with projects that bear little relationship to his works other than their expedient use of his name, such as  the video game Verne World and the series The Secret Adventures of Jules Verne.)

In the second category of film attributed to Verne, the various big-budget adventure epics are closer in their substance and spirit of his stories, even if they are routinely simplified and sometimes endowed with more giant monsters than Verne himself chose to present. Some of these, like Richard FLEISCHER's Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea, Michael ANDERSON's Around the World in Eighty Days, and both major versions of Journey to the Center of the Earth (1959, 2008), can be appreciated as superior popcorn entertainment, and one might praise Verne for providing an aura of dignity to such thoughtless but enjoyable projects. Others, though, have been clunky disasters, ranging from the infamous 1929 production of Mysterious Island to Jackie Chan's misguided remake of Around the World in Eighty Days. In between these extremes are numerous films that are merely dull, such as the Verne adaptations of Irwin ALLEN (Five Weeks in a Balloon, The Return of Captain Nemo), Byron HASKIN's From the Earth to the Moon, and similarly forgettable films like 1961's Mysterious Island and Master of the World, Anderson's dreary remake of Twenty Thousand Leagues of the Sea, and the television sequel The Return of Captain Nemo. Related to these are the even duller animated versions of Verne's novels made as television entertainment for youngsters, who are undoubtedly the only people able to enjoy them, or even endure them (thus, a younger version of myself was a big fan of the Saturday-morning cartoon series Journey to the Center of the Earth, closely based on the 1959 film and featuring seemingly weekly encounters with dinosaurs and other improbably monstrous denizens of Earth's deepest caverns).

Since the once-unknown regions that Verne's adventurers ventured into have now been thoroughly explored, and proven to the devoid of the mysteries and monsters that he presented, it is strange that his novels have remained so popular with filmmakers. But fantastic stories set in Victorian times may be more attractive than ever because of our recent fascination with that era, as exemplified by "steampunk" adventures like the graphic novel series (1999- ) and film The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003), which qualifies as a Verne adaptation since it includes Captain Nemo as one of its main characters. Strangely enough, if recent films are any guide, the second century after Verne's death may bring more adaptations of his works than the first century—proving that the distinctive tombstone "portraying his immortality," depicted in every issue of Hugo Gernsback's Amazing Stories, was indeed prophetic, and ironically making the entry on the oldest figure in this encyclopedia one that will most frequently need to be updated

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